An automobile’s exhaust system is normally
connected to the exhaust manifold and typically includes a muffler
to decrease engine noise and frequently in latest years a
catalytic converter to decrease the emissions that contributes
to air pollution. Large pipes, low-restriction mufflers,
and other resonators of a well-planned performance
exhaust system could make a world of difference on any vehicle.
In this section we are aiming at sharing information on exhaust
system and job performed by them.
The air pump sends (osr pumps) compressed air
into the wear out various and in some cases to the catalytic converter.
The oxygen in the hassled air helps to burn quite a bit of any
unburned hydrocarbons (fuel) and thereby converts the toxic carbon
monoxide into good old carbon dioxide. A strap from the
engine drives the air pump. It has little vanes (thin, flat, curved
fins) that draw the air into the density chamber. Here, the air
is compressed and sent off to the exhaust various where it speeds
up the emissions on fire process. Stainless steel nozzles
are used to fire the air into the exhaust many, because they would
not burn. Some engines use a beat air inoculation system. This
system uses pulses of exhaust gas to function an air pump that
delivers air into the exhaust system .
The cylinder head is the metal
piece of the engine that encloses and covers the cylinders. Bolted
on to the top of the block, the cylinder skull contains combustion
chambers, water jackets and valves (in overhead-valve engines).
The head gasket seals the passages within the
head-block association, and seals the cylinders as well. Henry
Ford sold his first production car, a 2-cylinder Model A, on July
There are several types of gaskets that attach
the exhaust pipe to the manifold. One is a flat surface gasket.
Another type uses a ball and hole with springs to preserve pressure.
This type allows some suppleness without breakage of the seal
or the manifold. A third type is the full ball connector type,
which also allows a small flexibility.
The process of combustion forms numerous gases and vapors;
many of them quite corrosive. Some of these gases get history
the piston rings and into the crankcase. If
left in the crankcase, these substances will
cause all kinds of bad things (rust, corrosion, and formation
of sludge), so they have to be removed. Back in the old days,
they used to be deserted out into the atmosphere through a tube.
Once we realized what problem pollution was in the sixties,
the PCV (Positive Crankcase Ventilation) system
was urbanized to take the place of the old "dump
tube." The PCV system uses a hose associated between
the engine and the intake multiple to draw these gases out of
the engine's crankcase and back into the cylinders to burn with
the usual fuel. The only problem to solve is how to keep these
gases from going willy-nilly into the various and upsetting
the required air-fuel ratio.
The solution to this dilemma is the PCV valve.
The PCV valve controls the discharge of crankcase gases and vapors
to the intake manifold. The valve is kept blocked by spring action
when the engine is at rest. When the engine is organization normally,
the low vacuum it creates allows the control
device to open and release crankcase vapors and gases into the
intake manifold for burning. If the engine is idling or you are
slowing down, the void level rises and pulls the valve plunger
into the valve opening. This partially blocks off the gap so that
only a small amount of vapors and gases could be drawn into the
intake manifold. One really comforting feature
of the PCV valve is its behavior in the event of a backfire. If
your car backfires in the manifold, the pressure makes the spring
close the valve totally. With the valve closed, there is no possibility
that the flame can move into the crankcase and reason an explosion.
Resonators are like little mufflers,
and are typically the "straight through" type. They
are added at the end of the exhaust scheme to take care of any
noise that has made it through the muffler. The muffler quiets
the sound of the exhaust by "muffling"
the sound waves produced by the opening and closing of the exhaust
valves. When an exhaust valve opens, it discharges the burned
gases at high pressures into the exhaust tube,
which is at low pressure. This type of action creates sound waves
that journey through the graceful gas, moving much earlier than
the gas itself (up to 1400 M.P.H.) which the muffler must silence.
It generally does this by converting the sound wave energy into
heat by passing the exhaust gas and its supplementary wave pattern,
through perforated chambers of varied sizes. Passing into the
perforations and reflectors
within the hall forces the sound waves to dispel their energy.